What is a Solar Rooftop System?
Solar rooftop system is a set of solar module mounting structures, solar inverters and various electrical components, with solar PV modules installed on the roof for the purpose of generating electricity.
This can be of three types
(i) Off Grid Solar Rooftop System / Stand Alone PV Systems (for places
with no grid electricity)
(ii) Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System
(iii) Hybrid Solar Rooftop System
What is Off Grid Solar Rooftop System (Stand Alone PV Systems)?
Stand-alone PV systems, which are isolated from the distribution grid usually, use standalone inverters with batteries. Stand alone system has either DC load only or AC and DC both load connected
What is Grid Connected PV Systems?
Grid-connected PV systems (also known as grid-tied systems), which are directly connected to the distribution grid, use grid connected inverters, and usually do not use batteries. DC power generated from SPV panel is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit/Inverter and is fed to the grid either of 440/220 Volt three/single phase line or of 33 kV/11 kV three phase lines depending on the capacity establishment and the regulatory framework specified for respective States.
These systems generate power during the day time which is utilized by powering captive loads and feed surplus power to the grid as long as grid is available. In case, where solar power is not sufficient due to cloudy weather or night time the captive loads are served by drawing balance power from the grid
A grid-connected PV systems is designed to automatically shut down if it detects anomalies in grid parameters such as voltage, frequency, rate of change of frequency, etc.
What is Hybrid PV Systems?
Hybrid PV systems are connected to the grid and also have a battery backup. If a
hybrid PV system observes anomalies in grid parameters, they are designed to isolate the consumer from the grid and continue to supply power from the PV system and batteries. The batteries can be charged by the grid or by solar energy in such systems.
Which are the Solar PV System Components?
How much area required for Solar Rooftop System?
Area require for Solar system is depends on Capacity of PV Module and Arrangement of PV Modules. Typically area required for 1kW Solar rooftop System is 9 Sq meter (96.87 sq ft) shadow free, which is total area that is covered by PV Modules and shadow of PV Modules.
Ex. 330W Module size is 990 mm * 1960 mm = 1.9404 sq meter.
If want to install 10 PV Modules then spaces covered by panel is 1.9404 sq meter * 10 nos = 19.404 sq meter (208.86 sq ft), but total 29.7 sq meter (319.67 sq ft) area require with PV Modules and shadow of PV Modules.
How much Power Generate by Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System?
Solar Power Generation is Dependable factor. Which is depends on Quality of Products used, Quality of Installation, Weather Conditions and Module Cleaning Frequency etc.
Approximately 1440 kwh / year Generation given by 1kW Solar Rooftop System in India at 1st year of installation. Solar system Power generation is decrease year by year as per PV module Specification. Solar PV module output can be decrease up to 20% within the 25 years of Installation.
How much Payback time for Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System?
Payback time for Subsidies Solar System is 3 to 4 year, and 4 to 5 year for Non-Subsidies Solar System.
Which are the models for implementation of Grid Connected Solar PV systems?
There are two model for Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System: 1. CAPEX Model and 2. RESCO Model
- CAPEX Model : Here, the entire system is owned by the rooftop owners and he bears the cost of the Solar system. Responsibility of O&M for the system lifetime (25 years) is also with the rooftop owner. Developer is responsible for installing the system and initial 1 to 5 years O&M and five years warranty.
- RESCO Model : Here, the entire system is owned by the developer. Responsibility of O&M for the system lifetime (say about 25 years) is also with the developer. Rooftop owners may consume the electricity generated, for which they have to pay a pre-decided tariff on a monthly basis. Excess generation may be exported to the grid, subject to availability of requisite state regulations.
What is procedure for installation of Grid Connected Rooftop Solar System?
- Work Order with advance Payment by beneficiary
- Document to Solar Agency by beneficiary (for Registration of Project in Government body or DISCOM)
- Payment of Registration Charges to Government body or DISCOM
- Approval of Project from Government body or DISCOM
- Drawing (Plan) Approval from Government body
- Approve Drawing (Plan) by Government body
- Net-meter Quotation by DISCOM
- Due Payment to Solar Agency by beneficiary
- Payment of Net-meter to DISCOM
- Procurement, Delivery and Installation by Solar Agency
- Test Certificate of Project to Government body / DISCOM by Solar Agency
- PPA Agreement in between DISCOM and beneficiary
- Net-meter Installation by DISCOM
- Project Commissioning Successful by Solar Agency
* These are Common Process for Grid Connected Solar Rooftop System, It may change State wise, Policy wise, Sector wise and Project Model wise.
How to check electricity generation of Solar Power Plant?
There are various way to check electricity generation (kWh – unit) from solar power plant, which is mention below
- Display of Inverter (PCU): We can check electricity generation on the display of the Inverter. We can also check Today’s, This month, This year and Total electricity generation.
- Solar Generation Meter: Solar Generation meter kWh reading shows total electricity generation.
- Remote Monitoring Application: Total Detailed Electricity Generation check by Remote monitoring application given by Solar Agency/Inverter Manufacturing Company.
Solar Generation can be stop automatically when Sunlight not available (night), Grid Power not available, Grid Parameter fluctuate (Current/Voltage/Frequency). In this case no need to contact Solar Agency. System resume automatically when parameter set.
How can know that electricity generation is stopped?
Solar generation stops when one of the following cases is occurs
- Solar Inverter display is off
- Solar Inveter showing Fault or red light
- Blinking of red light stopped in Solar Generation meter
What to do if Solar Inverter display is off?
Please check MCB / Fuse of DC Distribution box. Is fuse is burn out? or MCB is trip? If fuse is burn then replace it with new fuse. If MCB is trip then on it again.
If fuse/MCB both OK then check MC4 connectors are connected properly? Is any connector burnout? Is any loose connection in MC4 connector? If connector is burn then replace it with new MC4 connector pair.
Is DC Cable damaged or not? if damaged then need to take action as per situation.
if Everything is OK then contact to Solar Agency.
What to do if Solar Inverter showing fault or red light?
If grid electricity cut then Inverter showing fault and no need to do anything in this case.
If grid available but Voltage / frequency fluctuate continues then no need to do anything in this case.
Check AC Distribution Box, AC MCB is trip or not? If AC MCB is trip then on it and check Inverter back to normal mode
AC cable / wires damaged or not? If damaged then need to take action as per situation.
If found other then above fault then go through Inveter user manual.
Contact to Solar Agency if fault not resolve after above steps.
How to setup Remote monitoring?
How to Clean Solar PV Modules?
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